Critical Care Medicine, also known as Intensive Care Medicine, is a medical subspecialty dealing with day-to-day management of critically ill patients such as those in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Patients requiring a critical care physician typically include those with extreme illnesses such as unstable blood pressure, respiratory failure requiring ventilator management, renal failure, multiple system organ failure, sepsis, or cardiac arrhythmias. Non-critically ill patients may be admitted to the ICU when they require intensive monitoring and serial examinations. This typically occurs following major surgery or during an illness that has the potential of becoming catastrophic. Critical care physicians perform all aspects of critical care including endotracheal intubation and placement of intravenous central lines. Given the life threatening conditions that ICU physicians treat, a critical care expert witness is commonly needed in medical malpractice cases.