UROLOGY is a surgical field dealing with the medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the urinary tract of both males and females. Urologists are Medical Doctors (M.D.s) who undertake five years of specialty training during a postgraduate residency in Urology. Those who successfully pass their board examination are eligible for certification by the American Board of Urology. Urologists manage non-surgical disease of the urinary tract such as infections and prostate enlargement, though they also manage surgical issues such as prostatectomy, renal cancer, and ureteral stenting. Urologists also handle reproductive problems in men while Gynecologists specializing in Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility manage similar issues in women. Urologists may elect to subspecialize in one of two fields. Pediatric Urology deals with the treatment of urological disease and congenital urological anomalies in children. Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS) specialists treat pelvic floor issues such as incontinence, organ prolapse, fistulas, and pelvic pain.
Litigation against Urological Surgeons is less frequent than in other surgical specialties, though it does occur. Typical allegations include failure to diagnose and/or treat various urological conditions. The diagnosis and management of prostate cancer is also an emerging area in plaintiff claims.