While Hospital Pharmacists and Clinical Pharmacists are both qualified to prepare medications, clinical pharmacists devote the majority of their time to interacting directly with patients and healthcare teams. This typically occurs in larger hospitals or health system-associated outpatient clinics where CLINICAL PHARMACY specialists with advanced training in targeted areas of healthcare engage in collaborative or autonomous activities to manage medication treatment plans. In the hospital, these activities may encompass therapeutic drug monitoring, renal dosing of medication, and antimicrobial stewardship. In the clinic setting, a Clinical Pharmacist’s patient-focused services may include medication management of anticoagulation, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, asthma, cancer, HIV, and hepatitis, among others. Advanced practice in these areas is associated with increased accountability for outcomes, including potential misadventures. In medication-related litigation, an expert with direct or management experience in areas of Clinical Pharmacy or Ambulatory Care Pharmacy practice can provide valuable perspective. The expert can address standards related to a prescriber’s or Pharmacist’s management of a patient’s medication regimen, including but not limited to the context of current guidelines, and the underlying pharmacologic basis of therapeutics.