NEPHROLOGY is the medical specialty dealing with kidney (renal) function and the treatment of kidney disease. Nephrologists work in private offices and hospitals, and specialize in various areas including Pediatric Nephrology, Transplant Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine, Procedural Nephrology, Onconephrology (cancer-related kidney disease), and Dialysis. To become a Nephrologist, a physician must first undertake a 3-year residency in Internal Medicine followed by a 2-year fellowship in Nephrology. Upon completion, eligible candidates may become Board Certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine with a subspecialty certificate in Nephrology. Nephrologists treat both common and complex disorders ranging from hypertension to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Common renal diseases include acute kidney injury (AKI), glomerulonephritis, chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, hypertension, proteinuria, and electrolyte disorders.
Medical malpractice involving Nephrologists is relatively uncommon. When it occurs, allegations may include delayed diagnosis and treatment of a renal condition, as well as complications from treatment itself.