NEUROLOGY is the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system. This includes both the “central nervous system” (brain and spinal cord) and the “peripheral nervous system” (nerves). Neurology is a medical specialty; the corresponding surgical specialty is Neurosurgery. Neurologists treat a range of diseases including epilepsy (seizures), movement disorders, headaches, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, cerebral palsy, infections (e.g. meningitis and encephalitis), tumors, and countless other disorders of the human nervous system. All Neurologists complete a four-year residency, though many acquire additional fellowship training in subspecialties such as Child Neurology, Brain Injury Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology, Epilepsy, Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Neurodevelopmental Disabilities, Neuromuscular Medicine, Pain Medicine, Sleep Medicine, and Vascular Neurology. Neurology and all of its subspecialties are governed by the American Board of Neurology, part of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS).
Litigation against Neurologists is infrequent, though they are often required as expert witnesses in order to explain the treatment of stroke, seizure, and meningitis as well as a number of other acute neurological syndromes.